How Foodborne Outbreak Investigated

  • Once an outbreak is strongly suspected, an investigation begins.
  • A search is made for more cases among persons who may have been exposed. The symptoms and time of onset, and location of possible cases is determined, and a "case definition" is developed that describes these typical cases.
  • The outbreak is systematically described by time, place, and person. A graph is drawn of the number of people who fell ill on each successive day to show pictorially when it occurred. A map of where the ill people live, work, or eat may be helpful to show where it occurred. Calculating the distribution of cases by age and sex shows who is affected. If the causative microbe is not known, samples of stool or blood are collected from ill people and sent to the public health laboratory to make the diagnosis.
  • To identify the food or other source of the outbreak, the investigators first interview a few persons with the most typical cases about exposures they may have had in the few days before they got sick. In this way, certain potential exposures may be excluded while others that are mentioned repeatedly emerge as possibilities.
  • Combined with other information, such as the likely sources for the specific microbe involved, these hypotheses are then tested in a formal epidemiologic investigation.
  • The investigators conduct systematic interviews about a list of possible exposures with the ill persons, and with a comparable group people who are not ill. By comparing how often an exposure is reported by ill people and by well people, investigators can measure the association of the exposure with illness. Using probability statistics, similar to those used to describe coin flips, the probability of no association is directly calculated.

Hypotheses Created


For example, imagine that an outbreak has occurred after a catered event. Initial investigation suggested that Hollandaise sauce was eaten by at least some of the attendees, so it is on the list of possible hypotheses.
  • Now, we interview 20 persons who attended the affair, 10 of whom became ill and 10 who remained well. Each ill or well person is interviewed about whether or not they ate the Hollandaise sauce, as well as various other food items.
  • If half the people ate the sauce, but the sauce was not associated with the illness, then we would expect each person to have a 50/50 chance of reporting that they ate it, regardless of whether they were ill or not.
  • Suppose, however, that we find that all 10 ill people but none of the well persons reported eating Hollandaise sauce at the event? This would be very unlikely to occur by chance alone if eating the Hollandaise sauce were not somehow related to the risk of illness. In fact, it would be about as unlikely as getting heads ten times in a row by flipping a coin (That is 50% multiplied by itself 10 times over, or a chance of just under 1 in 1,000).
  • So the epidemiologist concludes that eating the Hollandaise sauce was very likely to be associated with the risk of illness. Note that the investigator can draw this conclusion even though there is no Hollandaise sauce left to test in a laboratory.
  • The association is even stronger if she can show that those who ate second helpings of Hollandaise were even more likely to become ill, or that persons who ate leftover Hollandaise sauce that went home in doggie bags also became ill.

Further Investigation


Once a food item is statistically implicated in this manner, further investigation into its ingredients and preparation, and microbiologic culture of leftover ingredients or the food itself (if available) may provide additional information about the nature of contamination.
  • Perhaps the Hollandaise sauce was made using raw eggs. The source of the raw eggs can be determined, and it may even be possible to trace them back to the farm and show that chickens on the farm are carrying the same strain of Salmonella in their ovaries. If so, the eggs from that farm can be pasteurized to prevent them from causing other outbreaks.
  • Some might think that the best investigation method would be just to culture all the leftover foods in the kitchen, and conclude that the one that is positive is the one that caused the outbreak. The trouble is that this can be misleading, because it happens after the fact. What if the Hollandaise sauce is all gone, but the spoon that was in the sauce got placed in potato salad that was not served at the function? Now, cultures of the potato salad yield a pathogen, and the unwary tester might call that the source of the outbreak, even though the potato salad had nothing to do with it. This means that laboratory testing without epidemiologic investigation can lead to the wrong conclusion.
Even without isolating microbes from food, a well-conducted epidemiologic investigation can guide immediate efforts to control the outbreak.
  • A strong and consistent statistical association between illness and a particular food item that explains the distribution of the outbreak in time, place and person should be acted upon immediately to stop further illness from occurring.

End of Outbreak


An outbreak ends when the critical exposure stops:
  • This may happen because all the contaminated food is eaten or recalled, because a restaurant is closed or a food processor shuts down or changes its procedures, or an infected food handler is no longer infectious or is no longer working with food.
  • An investigation that clarifies the nature and mechanism of contamination can provide critical information even if the outbreak is over.
  • Understanding the contamination event well enough to prevent it can guide the decision to resume usual operations, and lead to more general prevention measures that reduce the risk of similar outbreaks happening elsewhere.

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